General Presentation



TITLE: Should be in both English and bahasa Melayu (editor will translate the title for non-Malaysian authors). It should be short, concise and informative, and should contain key words necessary to facilitate retrieval by a search engine.

NAMES OF AUTHORS: Should be written immediately below the title in this format: M.Y. Rohani*, H. Rosiah** and M.P. Dennet***
The different number of asterisks is used to indicate authors are from different institutions or organisations. This information should be provided as a footnote at the bottom of the first page.

KEYWORDS: 5–7 words. The function of keywords is to supplement the information given in the title. Words in the title are automatically included in indexes, and keywords serve as additional pointers. Therefore, do not use words or terms in the title as keywords

ABSTRACT: Should not be more than 200 words. Papers received without an abstract will be returned to the author. Should also provide an abstract in Malay (for non-Malaysians, the abstract will be translated by the editor). It is important to give main results, new findings (techniques, concepts, taxonomic entities, conclusions, etc.). The Abstract should be complete enough for direct use by abstracting services.

INTRODUCTION: Should be able to set the scene fully and clearly, include reasons and objectives why the study was conducted, as well as any previous work relating to the study, summarised by a few relevant references.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Should be listed clearly and succinctly, to include, where appropriate, an adequate account of layout, full description of treatments and appropriate statistical design.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Should present own results in tables, charts, figures and other appropriate means in order to provide comparative information.
Discussion should thoroughly explain the results or findings from the study and interpreted with the support of evidence or data and suitable references. Anomalous or unexpected results must be explained.

CONCLUSION: Should be drawn from the results and the results presented must answer the problems, issues and hypothesis put forth by the author (s).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Should list all supporting institutions and the names (preferably untitled) and the affiliations of people who have assisted and contributed to the study in some way or other.

REFERENCES: Authors are solely responsible for the accuracy of the references cited.  It is highly recommended that authors cite only refereed journals and books recently published.

In the text, cite the name(s) of the author(s) and years of publication by year first and then alphabetically.

  • One author                        –          (Rahim 2008; Ahmad 2010; Chan 2010)
  • Two authors                      –          (Rahim and Bakar 2008; Ahmad and Chan 2009)
  • Three or more authors        –          (Rahim et al. 2008; Chan et al. 2010)
  • Several references by one author in a particular year or different years
    • Same year               –          (Rahim 2008 a, b, c)
    • Different years         –          (Rahim 2007, 2008, 2010)

In the reference list, authors’ names are listed alphabetically and then according to year sequence (earliest to the more recent) where an author has more than one reference. Arrange in alphabetical sequence of first word or title, where an author has more than one paper published in the same year, then assign letters a, b, c after the year. There is no numbering before each reference cited.

  • With multiple authors, the references are arranged alphabetically by first author, second author, third etc. Rahim, Chan, Pillay (2010) would appear before Rahim, Zakaria and Bakar (2008)
  • For an author having more than one entry, the author’s name in the second and the following entry is replaced by a 3-em rule.
    • Examples:
      • Journal article
        • Sariam, O. and Annuar, A.R. (2010). Effects of irrigation regime on irrigated rice. J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc. 38(1): 1–9
      • Book
        • Salma, I. (2011). Durio of Malaysia, 166 p.  Serdang: MARDI Press
      • Chapter in a book
        • Izham, A. and Wan Jusoh, W.M. (2008). Production and management of quality seeds and planting materials. In: Breeding of horticultural crops @ MARDI, (Chan, Y.K., Tan, S.L. and Siti Hawa, J., eds.), p. 517–530. Serdang: MARDI Press
      • Electronic copy of a journal article
        • Tapsir, S. and  and Fadhilah Annaim, H.H. (2010). Status and demand of technology for selected beef cattle producers in Peninsular Malaysia. Economic and Technology Management Review 5: 21-26. Retrieved in 8 Aug. 2011 from


  • Tabular materials must be kept to a minimum. Only data essential to the understanding of the text should be included in tables.
  • Where papers are based on extensive analytical data, choose a small section of representative analyses to indicate the unpublished range on which the paper is based.
  • All tables should be printed on separate sheets placed after the references.
  • Tables should be numbered serially in Arabic numerals and referred to in the text. Title should be written at the top of the table.
  • Abbreviations in the table should be adequately explained in the footnotes.
  • Units of measurement should be placed in column heads.
  • Vertical rules should not be used. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below column headings and at the foot of the table.


  • Figures should only be used where they are essential to elucidate the text. They should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and each must be referred to in the text. Title should be in italics and placed at the bottom of the figures.
  • Drawings should be done in black ink.
  • Clear patterns away from areas of type, and avoid mixing type faces on the same figures, grid marks should point outwards, legends to horizontal axis should run from left to right while for vertical axis legends should run from bottom to top. Use the same symbols (e.g. ● ○ ■ □ ▲◊ ♦ etc) for all the graphs in one paper.
  • The style of the figures within any one paper should be as closely matched as possible.


  • Colour photographs will be accepted only if they are essential.
  • Suitable electronic formats for photographs are .jpg and .gif files at a minimum resolution of 300 d.p.i.


The statistical design should be described briefly and clearly as part of the materials and methods in the manuscript. Data should be analysed and summarised by appropriate statistical methods.

Authorship Declaration form
All authors are required to sign the Authorship Declaration form to declare the originality of their work and no part of it is plagiarized as to constitute an infringement of the Copyright Act 1987. Completed forms must be submitted via mail, fax or email.

Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of MARDI and may not be published elsewhere without prior permission from the publisher. All authors are required to sign a Copyright Transfer form upon acceptance of the manuscript. Permission must be obtained from copyright owner to reproduce materials published elsewhere in the manuscript.

(Revised: August 2011)

Preparation of Manuscript



  1. The manuscript must be written in English, double-spaced throughout (text, abstract, references, tables) and single-sided on A4 paper. Font: 12 pt, Times New Roman, text should not be justified but aligned left.
  2. Use formatted text such as Microsoft Word.
  3. Length of articles should not be more than 5,000 words or 25 pages (excluding tables and figures)
  4. Main headings (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgement, References) are set in bold Roman. Minor headings are set in bold italic Roman.
  5. Provide an abstract in both English and Malay (editor will translate the abstract for non-Malaysian authors). Place the Malay version at the end of the paper after the references.
  6. Place tables and figures at the end of manuscript, each on a separate page.
  7. All references mentioned in the text are in the References, and vice versa.
  8. Use italic where appropriate (not underlining).
  9. Technical symbols not found on keyboard should be marked on the margin of the manuscript.
  10. Suggest an abridged title suitable for use as running head of not more than 50 characters (including spaces).
  11. Provide full names and postal addresses of all authors, and e-mail address and fax number of the first author. This information should be written at the end of the first page of the manuscript as a footnote.

Instruction to Authors



The journal publishes original research papers on all aspects of agriculture and food science relevant to the tropical and subtropical regions. The journal also publishes short communications.

Papers published or under consideration elsewhere will not be accepted, but publication elsewhere of an abstract or extended summary does not preclude publication in full in this journal.

All papers are expected to be peer-reviewed, before submission, not only for scientific content, but also for correctness in presentation of text, references and illustrations. All authors are responsible for any paper they co-authored.

Submitted papers will normally be sent to two subject matter specialist as referees (in Malaysia and/or overseas) for constructive confidential appraisal, to maintain a high standard of publication.

Well-presented papers result in faster turn around times, more accurate proofing and reduced time to eventual publication. Paper submitted in poor conformity with the editorial requirements given below may be returned without review.

Date of acceptance is the date the author’s final revision is officially accepted by the Editorial Committee.

No printed off prints of the published paper are provided. Authors may request for the PDF copy of their paper.

Address for Submission



Chief Editor
Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science
Technical Services Centre
MARDI Headquarters, Serdang
P.O. Box 12301
50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

FIRST SUBMISSION: 3 hard copies. Originals of illustrations (figures, slides etc.) should not be submitted until the paper has been accepted.

REVISED OR ACCEPTED: 2 hard copies and CD or e-copy sent via e-mail
(This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

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Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science (JTAFS)
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