The use of tapioca in layer diet

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S.W.Yeong and Syed Ali, A.B. 

Abstract

One hundred and eighty 31-week-old Commercial White Leghorn crossed pullets were used in a randomised block experiment. The trial was divided into 2 phases. During the first phase (31st to 42nd week), 5 experimental isonitrogenous diets with 0%, I5%, 30%, 45% and 60% tapioca replacing maize were fed to the respective groups. In the second phase (43rd to 74th week). the latter 4 tapioca diets were supplemented with 0.2% methionine which made up the total methionine level to 0.% in the diets. Results from the first phase showed that in spite of equal crude protein content egg production decreased with the increase of tapioca level in the diets (P <0.01). Egg weight.feed conversion efficiency and total egg mass produced was lower in the tapioca treated groups. This situation was remedied by the methionine supplementation in the second phase. There was no significant differences in the above parameters in all the treatments. The better results obtained in the second phase might be due to detoxication effect of this sulphur amino acid on hydrocyanide content in the tapioca meal. No difference in mortality was observed. Paleness in egg yolk caused by the substitution of tapioca with maize can be remedied by supplementing commercial carotenoid pigments in the tapioca diets. 

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Studies on Kedah-Kelantan cattle III. Body composition and carcass characteristics

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C. Devendra and T. Lee Kok Choo

Abstract 

This paper represents part three concerning further studies on Kedah-Kelantan cattle and presents critical information on the body composition and carcass characteristics of 6 Kedah-Kelantan heifers about 22 months old and weighing about 188 to 240 kg. Results are presented on carcass characteristics due to feeding Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) together with 40, 60 and 80% tapioca (Manihot utilissima Pohl) in the ratio of 3:1 for 490 days. The data presented included 16 body, composition characteristics,19 gastrointestinal measurements and 13 individual meat cuts. The mean live weight at slaughter ranged from 188.7 to 210.7 kg., hot carcass weigh from 95.5 to 109.9 kg. and dressing percentage 50.5 to 54.8. The total gut contents ranged from 51.7 to 63.0 kg. and as percentage of slaughter weight 27.8 to 32.0%. Treatments had statistically significant effects (P<0.05) only on dressing percentage, weight of the clean stomach and in the cuts only for the neck and round. All other parameters measured were not affected by treatments. The mean weight of meat was 88.3 kg. and meat as a percentage of carcass and slaughter weights were 82.6 and 46.4% respectively. The mean meat:bone ratio was 5.4. Increasing D.M.l., consistent with increasing intake of energy in the concentrate diet increased the fat content of the carcass,notably mesenteric fat. Grade one and two cuts accounted for a mean weight of 86.7 kg. or 82.7% and 18.2 kg. or 17.3% of the carcass respectively. The significance of improved nutrition on carcass characteristics and on cuts of the carcass in the context of edible meat content, consumer preferences and retail value is discussed. 

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The response of padi murni to four levels of nitrogen during the off-season crop (1973)

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C.Y. Tay

Abstract

High levels of nitrogen application induced active vegetative growth in Murni. Mutual shading effects were enhanced. Increased in yield with increasing levels of nitrogen application was brought about by- the increase in panicle number per hill. Maximum yield would be obtained between the levels of 134.6 kg(N)/ha and 179.4 kg(N)/ha application. 

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Fruit ripening studies on pineapple

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T.H.Tay

Abstract

Studies on the changing visual characteristics of the peel and flesh with ripening uf seven pineapple cultivars commonly grown in Malaysia were conducted. lt was shown that there was some differences in the colour changes of the peel with ripening. Difference in development of the golden colour of the flesh was also noted. With the Masmerah and Mauritius cvs. the development of golden colour flesh starts from the central area around the core and radiates outwards to the peel as ripening procceds. For the other cultivars understudy, the golden colour of the flesh develops from the peduncle end and proceeds towards the crown end with ripening. The fruit sugar and acid contents of the Masmerah cv. increase to their maximum at four fruitlets ripe and three fruitlets ripe respectively.The sugar/acid ratio and percent population with yellow/golden flesh and partially to full translucent flesh increase steadily to the five fruitlets ripe stage and then flatten off.

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Multistage testing of blast resistance in rice

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K. M. Chin

Abstract

An attempt is made to provide a complete profile of plant resistance to the blast disease by systematic testing at different stages of plant growth. A five-year study on specific (vertical) and non-specific (horizontal) resistance leading to the selection of two resistant lines RC6 and RC7 is described. 

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