Effects of levels and forms of phosphate fertilizers on flue cured virginia tobacco in Kelantan

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A.C Leong

Abstract

56.1 kg ha-1 phosphate was sufficient for both the alluvial and Sandy Bris as no significant differences were detected between the other levels. Similarly no difference was detected between the forms of phosphate in terms of yield as 25% TSP yielded non-significantly from 100% TSP in second season. In the fourth season the forms of phosphate was critical as 50% TSP : 50%, CIRP  and 100% TSP yielded significantly higher than 25% TSP : 75% CIRP. The treatment with 50% TSP : 50% CIRP provided a readily and consistent supply of PO4 and is superior to 100% TSP. Based on quality of the tobacco leaves especially the percent sugar and nicotine it was found that beyond ll2.l kg P2O5, ha-1 applied caused a significant depression in percent sugar on alluvial soil. No significant difference was detected between 56.1 and 112.1 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the percent sugar. It was also shown that 100% TSP was detrimental to the leaf quality as it recorded a significantly lower percent sugar than the 25% TSP : 75% CIRP and 50% TSP : 50% CIRP. This confirmed the importance of lower dosage < 112.1 kg P2O5 ha -1 applied in the form of a readily and consistent source of PO4.as in 50% TSP : 50% CIRP on alluvial soil. On the Sandy Bris soil no individual treatment except the treatments combination gave any significant difference in the percent sugar. On differentiating the multiple regression equations for the percent sugar on both Sandy Bris and alluvial soil the technical optimum level and form of phosphate was obtained approximately. to the treatment of 112.1 kg P2O5, ha-1  applied as 50% TSP : 50% CIRP. On Sandy Bris 56.1 kg  P2O5 ha-1  recorded a significantly lower percent nicotine than 140.1 and 168.1 kg.P2O5 ha-1 though no significant difference was detected between 84.1 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 168.1 kg P2O5 ha11. Leaf quality is very important in tobacco culture. From the experimental data the  leaves from Sandy Bris and alluvial soil in Kelantan still has a very low range of percent sugar and nicotine compared to the leaves from USA. Though there was no significant difference between 56.1 and 112.1 kg P2O5,ha-1 the latter had a higher percent sugar. nicotine and sugar/nicotine ratio. Thus based on yield the level of PO4 suggested is 56.1 kg P2O5 ha-1 applied as 50% TSP : 50% CIRP however, in terms of leaf quality it appeared that 112.1 kg P2O5 ha-1 applied as 50% TSP: 50% CIRP is a better level for the tobacco culture on both soil types.

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Effects of sulphates and methionine supplementation in high cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) based diets for layers

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Yeong, S.W. and Syed Ali, A.B. 

Abstract

A total of two hundred and forty three of 32 weeks old Dekalb brown shell layers were allotted to nine treatments to compare the effect of sulphate compounds and DL-methionine supplementation to cassava based diets for 30 weeks duration. The treatments were : 60% maize diet and 60% cassava diets (basal control), 0.1% and 0.2% DL-methionine, 0.1% or 0.2% sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), 0.1% DL-methionine + 0.1% sodium sulphate, 0.2% sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), and 0.1% potassium sulphate (K2SO4) + 0.1% magnesium sulphate (Mg SO4). Egg production was significantly better (P<0.05) in maize control group, all the DL-methionine and 0.2% sodium sulphate supplemented groups compared to groups with other sulphate supplements. Eggs were significantly heavier (P<0.05) in the maize control diet and the methionine supplemented diets than those with sulphates supplemented diets. Chickens fed maize control and methionine groups was superior in feed efficiency than all the sulphate supplemented groups (P<0.05). It is therefore recommended that 0.1% DL-methionine is the suitable supplemental level for cassava based diets.

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Effect of protein levels on Kedah-Kelantan heifers during pregnancy and lactation II. Effect on calf growth performance

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Lee, K.C.T and C. Devendra

Abstract

Paper II reports the effect of protein levels in the diets of dams on calf growth performance. Five increasing levels of 12,15,18, 21 and 24 percent of crude protein were fed. The sixth treatment contains 18% crude protein but has no urea and only soybean as a protein source. Twenty five calves were weaned after a period of 6 months. After parturition, the calves were kept together with the dams to allow for colustrum feeding. On the fifth day, they were separated and the calves were allowed to suckle twice a day. Grass and water were assessible to the calves all throughout the experimental period. Live weight was taken weekly and body measurements every fortnightly. No significant differences were found between treatments. An average liveweight increase of 332.2 g/day was found and the calves reached an average weaning weight of 73.0 kg. in 6 months. Highly significant correlations were found between the body measurements of calves and their liveweight. The implications of these findings were discussed. 

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Problems and control of insects in rice packing1

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G.S.Lim2, S.P.Tee2, I.M. Ong and B.T. Lee3 

Abstract

Rice constitutes one of the important food items in Malaysia The common insects found infesting rice sealed in polythene bags were Triboliunm castaneum, Sitophilus oryzae, Lophocateres pusillus, Carporphilus dimidiatus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis. Ephestia cautella and Liposcelis entomophilus. Except for S. oryzae, T. castaneum and,I. entomophilus, the remaining species were relatively unimportant and usually, present in small numbers. To date, studies on various control measures have shown that heat treatment through manual 'frying' would ensure a safe storage for only about 7 months. This however is able to double the storage period of 'unfried' rice by reducing the rate of weevil build- up during early storage. For the other heat treatments, i.e. microwave and fluidized heating, a longer storage period appears possible. Under experimental conditions. infested rice subject to effective microwave treatment was observed to remain insect-free despite storage of more than a year. With methyl bromide fumigation, a 2-year safe storage has been achieved to date. The limitations of the various methods studied are also discussed.

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Comparative study on the effect of three plant spacing on the performance of three flue cured virginia tobacco varieties grown on three soil types in Kelantan

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A.C. Leong

Abstract

Different tobacco varieties performed differently on different soil types. On the alluvial soil MN 14 and MN l33 gave a significantly higher  yieid than NC 95. Varietal difference is not a determining factor in the yield component of the crop grown on the Sandy Bris and granite wash soil. Spacings had no significant effect on the three tobacco varieties grown on the three soil types. The single row planting had the highest yield irrespective of the varieties and soil types.

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