The nutritive value of cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) leaves as a source of protein for ruminants in Malaysia

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C. Devevdra

Abstract

Data are presented on chemical composition of 11 varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves, 4 bitter and 7 sweet varieties. Except for nitrogen-free extract. no statistically significant differences were found in chemical composition between bitter and sweet varieties. The bitter varieties appear to have a higher mean crude protein content. The digestibility of the leaves of variety C5 showed that the dry organic matter digestibility crude protein and energy digestibility were 49.7, 50.0. 62.6 and 53.4 per cent respectively. The crude protein digestibility was noticeably high and was associated with a relatively high N balance of 62.5 per cent as percentage of intake. The nutritional value determined was 14.5 per cent digestible crude protein (DCP) .49.6 per cent total digestible nutrients (TDN) 12.2 MJ Kg digestible energy (DE). 10.0 MJ/Kg metabolisable energy,(ME) and 3.98 MJ/Kg net energy for fattening. The biological value (BV) was 65.4. The potential of tapioca leaves as a source of protein in diets for ruminants in Malaysia is stressed.

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Chemical treatment of rice straw in Malaysia I. The effect on digestibility of treatment with high levels of sodium and calcium hydroxide

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C.Devendra

Abstract

The digestibility by sheep of nutrients in diets containing 30, 40 and 50 per cent rice straw treated with 6 and 8 per cent NaOH or Ca(OH)in molasses-based diet is described. The content of crude fibre of untreated rice straw in the dry matter was 30.4 per cent. With 6 and 8 per cent NaOH, the value was improved to 29.0 and 28.2 per cent, and with Ca(oH)2, 28.8 and 28.5 per cent. Treatment with alkali increased the intake and improved the digestibility of all nutrients significantly (p<0.05). However, the best results were found for the 30 per cent level of rice straw inclusion treated with 8 per cent NaOH. For this treatment, individual digestibilities were improved from 60.3 to 76.0 per cent for dry matter, crude protein from 35.8 to 78.1 per cent, crude fibre from 23.8 to 67.8 per cent, ash from 34.4 to 62.5 per cent and energy from 34.4 to 62.5 per cent. With Ca(OH)2. the improvements in digestibility were from 66.5 to 73.3 per cent for dry matter, 59.4 to 68.4 for crude protein, 36.4 to 54.4 per cent for crude fibre, and energy from 63.4 to 74.8 per cent. It was calculated that for the 30 per cent rice straw + 8 per cent NaOH diet or Ca(OH)2 diets, there was an increased intake of 1.3 to 1.4 MJ of ME per sheep per day, equivalent to an increase of 25.2 and 26.2 per cent. A comparison of the effects of both alkalis indicated that NaOH was considerably more superior. The ultimate value of NaOH treatment will depend on type of level used method of application, beneficial responses in feeding trials and cost-benefit analysis.

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Economic evaluation of padi drying using heat from powertiller

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Ooi Ho Seng

Abstract

At the present stage of research and development work on waste engine heat drying, it was felt that an economic reappraisal of the project was necessary to justify the continuation of the work. The problems associated with the deterioration of off-season paddy was discussed and the value of the losses was estimated at $160 per farmer per season. The cost of waste engine heat drying to overcome these losses was estimated at $79.42 per farmer per season or $13.24 per ton of paddy. It was noted that there will be a significant savings to the farmers and the nation if appropriate on-farm drying were carried out.

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The effect of energy and protein levels on the performance of broiler chickens

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Yeong, S.W. Phuah, C.H and Syed Ali A.B

Abstract

Three trials were conducted to study the effect of protein-energy relationship as well l as calorie-protein ratio on the performance of broiler chickens from 5th to 10th weeks. lt was observed that diets with 20 to 22% crude protein and 3,000 to 3,200 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy produced significant improvement in both body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (p<0.05). whereas calorie-protein ratio played only an insignificant role on the two parameters.

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Collection of oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Genetic material in nigeria II. Phenotypic variation of natural population

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N. Rajanaidu, N.T Arasu and C.O Obasola

Abstract

Forty-five populations from 21 areas distributed throughout Nigeria were studied. The means and variance of the populations were examined. The phenotypic variation of natural Nigerian palms showed that there were differences between both the sites and areas. However, most of the variation was accounted for by the palms themselves rather than by sites and areas.

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