A CASE A CASE OF WARFARIN RESISTANCE IN RATTUS RATTUS DIARDII (JENTINK)

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Y.M. LAM. A.K. LEE. Y.P. TAN and ELANJARAN MOHAN

SUMMARY

Warfarin resistance in R. rattus diardii was confirmed in the laboratory. Five from a sample of 14 R. rattus diardii trapped from a cocoa area in Kuala Bernam Estate. Teluk Anson, Perak, showed a high tolerance to warfarin when compared with warfarin-naive rats of the same species. The mean lethal dose for males and females that succumbed in the 6-day screening test with 0.025% warfarin was 49.8 mg/kg and 30.8 mg/kg respectively. Mean days to death for males was 7.4 days and females 14 days. In the 30-day 'no-choice' test with 0.02.5% warfarin, four out of five rats succumbed, two females on the 14th day after consuming a dose of 107.2 mg/kg and 119.3 mg/kg of warfarin respectively; and two males, one on the 24th day after consuming 205 mg/kg and the other on the 34th day after consuming 241.7 mg/kg of warfarin. One female survived the 30-day test after having consumed a total dose of 347.4 mg/kg of warfarin. The intermittent feeding pattern of the warfarin tolerant/resistant rats is of practical importance in control treatments using warfarin.

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TECHNIQUES FOR RACE TYPING OF XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE (UYEDA ET ISHIYAMA) DOWSON IN MALAYSIA

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B.L. HO

SUMMARY

Efficient and fast techniques for race typing of X. oryzae were developed. Using these techniques, Malaysian isolates of X. oryzae were shown to exist in races and rice cultivars shown to vary in race specific, vertical resistance, Techniques of mass inoculation and disease assessment based on lesion types were described.

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EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEST DISINFESTATION METHODS FOR RICE PACKINGS

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ABDUL RAHIM MUDA, NIK MASDEK HASSAN and LIM GUAN SOON

SUMMARY

The relative efliciency of 5 disinFestation methods to control Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum in rice packings, and their effects on grain nutritional content, fungal development and presence of aflatoxin on the grain were studied over 22 months storage period. Packaging rice in airtight laminated bags have shown to provide complete control against S. oryzae and T. castaneum over 19 months provided the airtightness can be maintained. The fluidized-heating method showed complete suppression of both species over 16 months but drastic loss in moisture, total protein, and vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin and niacin) was noted. With frying, fumigation, and microwave heating techniques, the more damaging. S. oryzae adults reappeared after 13, 7 and 1 month for all 3 treatment methods. With the exception of fluidized heated rice, losses, if any, in moisture and nutritional contents in rice by other methods were insignificant. Microwave heating, frying, fumigation, airtight plastic bagging and fluidized-heating recorded fungal infestation of 12.5%, 13.75%, 17.3%, 21.1% and 28.3% of grain assessed , respectively, compared to more than 50% fungal recovery in the pre-treatment assessment. The predominants pecies are Aspergillus candidus , A. niger, A. chevalieri, A . flavus, A. fumigatus, A. aculeatus, A . ruber and Penicillium spp. However aflatoxin was not detected.

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A STUDY OF THE BODY TEMPERATURE, RESPIRATION AND PULSE RATES OF MALAYSIAN SWAMP BUFFALOES EXPOSED TO THE SUN

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M. PATHMASINGHAM, AHMAD AMAN, ABDUL WAHAB YUSUF and  MOHD. KAMAL KHALID

SUMMARY

The paper reports a study of the basic physiological characteristics of the Malaysian swamp buffalo. It also discusses the effect of sex, age and times of the day on these characteristics. The overall means recorded on all the animals in this study, for rectal temperature, Rhoad's Heat Tolerance Coefficient, respiration rate, Benezra's Index of Adaptability and pulse rate was 38.87°C, 89.53, 48.76, 3.14 and 48.32, respectively. The effect of sex on these measurements was insignificant. However, the age effect was highly significant (P<0.01), with the 2-4 year-old buffaloes being superior in adaptability to an exposed environment, as compared to the 1-2 year-olds. Further, the effect of time of day on the different characteristics was variously significant (P<0.01), with the hottest hours of the day producing severe stress on these animals. The physiological values obtained in this study were compared with those obtained from buffaloes in Egypt, India and the Philippines, under similar conditions. The comparison demonstrated that the Malaysian swamp buffalo is less well adapted to a hot environment than its counter parts in Egypt, India and the Philippines. A suggestion as to the kind of research that needs to be undertaken to improve the productivity of the Malaysian buffalo, by increasing its adaptability, is discussed.

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CONTROL OF RICE BLAST BY TRICYCLAZOLE

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SAAD ABDULLAH and SUPAAD MOHD. AMIN

SUMMARY

The two fungicides, Hinosan and Fuji-1G, which are currently the standard chemicals recommended are still effective in controlling foliar blast and panicle blast respectively. However, a new chemical, Tricyclazole, when tested were found equally as good and if not better than the standard chemicals in controlling both the foliar and panicle blast. Two spray applications of Tricyclazole at 0.05% a.i., one on first appearance of the disease followed with another three days later could control the foliar blast in the rice nurseries. Another advantage is that this fungicide was also found effective when applied as a soil treatment in the nurseries. At a rate of 9 litres of 0.05% a.i. concentration per 20 litres of soil, it could remain effective as long as over 21 DAS. Panicle blast could also be effectively controlled by this fungicide. When applied at 0.05% a.i. at full booting stage, its effectiveness was similar as Fuji-1G applied at 1 kg a.i./ha. Both these fungicides gavea n increase in yield of about 30%

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