GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF LABORATORY - BRED MALAYSIAN WOOD RAT (RATTUS TIOMANICUS MILLER)

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KAMAL A. KAMARUDIN

SUMMARY

Laboratory studies on Rattus tiomanicas (Miller) indicated that linear relationship between weights and ages up to the 20th week existed. At birth, males weighed 4.0 g and females weighed 3.8 g and were weaned about 28 days later at 34.0 and 30.0 g, respectively. Fifty percent of males were scrotal and half of the females had perforated vaginas by the seventh week after birth at mean weights 59.2 and ,56.2 g, respectively. Fifty percent of the females became pregnant for the first time by the 24th week and weighed 88.6 g. Fifty percent adult mortality occurred at mean ages of 34 weeks for males, and 40 weeks for females with mean weights of 114.0 and 106.4 g, respectively. Mean days to first birth ranged from 121 to 265 days (mean 202.6 days about the 29th week after birth). Their mean number of young varied from 3.6 to maximum 5.8, and litter sizes ranged from 2 to 9 throughout the life span of the females. The days between litters varied between 22 and 155 days.

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WARFARIN RESISTANCE IN RATTUS TIOMANICUS (MILLER)

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LEE C.H., MUSTAFA MD. D., SOH K.G. AND MOHAN E.

SUMMARY

Rattus tiomanicus from cocoa-coconut fields in Hilir Perak under unsuccessful warfarin control programmes were live-trapped and brought back to the laboratory. They were conditioned and provided with food and water ad libitium. Subsequently two batches (10 males and 10 females each) were provided with 0.25% warfarin in wax maize base for 8 - and 14-days' no-choice feeding while two other batches were given 0.025% bromethalin and scilliroside baits respectively for 1-day. Five out of 20 rats survived the 8-days test while one survived the 14-day feeding period and none survived the bromethalin and scilliroside feeding tests. Animals that succumbed to the warfarin tests required a higher dose and a longer duration to death in contrast to that reported by LEE and MUSTAFA (1982)f or susceptible rats. Intermittent and irregular feeding on warfarin baits were noted in both rats that succumbed and survived the feeding tests. Survived rats consumed baits from half to almost the equivalent to their body weights. Totolerate such high doses, they would definitely survived any warfarin control programmes in the field. This showed that the animals have built up resistance to warfarin. Bromethalin and scilliroside at 0.25% were able to bring about 100% mortality of the rats with low bait consumption and in the case of bromethalin a short duration to death. Bait consumption for bromethalin could be enhanced with delayed death of 1-2 days by having a lower bait concentration. Being able to bring about total mortality, bromethalin with other 'second generation 'rodenticides and/or scilliroside with other acute poisons would be alternatives towards the control of rodents especially in areas with warfarin resistant rats.

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THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SUGAR CANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM ) TOPS

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C. DEVENDRA

SUMMARY

The nutritive value of sugar cane tops (SCT), one of the by-products from sugar cane cultivation was determined from balance studies using indigenous sheep. In treatment 1, SCT was fed ad libirum and treatment 2 involved feeding SCT supplemented with 10 per cent molasses and 2.9 per cent of feed grade urea. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in the intake of fresh and dry matter (P<0.05) and in the apparent digestibility of crude protein (P<0.05) which with urea supplementation reached 41.0 per cent. The corresponding N retention was 17.8 per cent. Except for Mg, Ca and P were in negative balance. The nutritive value of SCT was 0.7 per cent digestible crude protein (DCP), 55.8 total digestible nutrients (TDN), 10.29 MJ /Kg digestible energy (DE) and 8.44 metabolisable energy MJ/Kg(ME).

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PERFORMANCE OF TROPICAL FORAGES UNDER THE CLOSED CANOPY OF THE OIL PALM. I. GRASSES

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CHEN CHIN PENG and BONG JULITA IBRAHIM

SUMMARY

Fifteen tropical grasses were evaluated for dry matter yield, plant chemical composition and persistence under the closed canopy of oil palm with three cutting intervals of 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Most grasses reached plateau production six months after initiation except B. decumbens under highcutting frequency and, A. compressus under low cutting frequency. The best dry matter yielde was B. decumbens (1727 kg/ha/year) followed closely by B. brizantha (1235 kg/ha/year), P. conjugatum (1145 kg/ha/year), common guinea (1029 kg/ha/year), D. setivala (1007 kg/ha/year), A. compressus (929 kg/ha/year) while D. aristatum, Tanganyika guinea, B. ruziziensis gave average production (480 - 863 kg/ha/year). The rest of the grasses namely Trichoglume guinea, Kazungula setaria, Transvala digit, Rodd's Bay Paspalum, C. plectostachyus and Bryan paspalum, produce negligible yield. Though A.compressus and P.conjugatum only produced respectively 54% and 60% DM yield of B. decumbens, they were the most shade tolerant and achieved similar nitrogen production as B. decumbens. None of the improved grasses were persistent under the palm canopy. All mineral concentrations in plant declined with time except the levels of phosphorus and magnesium. Tlte Brachiaria spp. had the lowest level of all minerals while the guinea grass and the two natives were having the highest.

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USE OF VIRUS AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS NOMURAEA RILEYI (FARLOW) SAMSON TN SOYBEAN

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ABDUL LATIF AHMAD ZABIDI , G.E. ALLEN AND D.C. HERZOG

SUMMARY

The efficacy of velvetbean eaterpiller nuelear polyhedrosis virus (VBC NPV) against field popular of VBC and its interaction with the naturally occurring fungus N. rileyi were investigated. The VBCNPV at 7.4 and 37 LF significantly reduced VBC population below the damaging levels throughout the test period. The success of the VBC NPV was attributed to its high persistence in the field. the was no significant VBC NPV x fingus interations based on larval count, white cadavers and yield. The reduced impact of N. rileyi epizootie in all treated plots clearly demonstrated a host-dentsity dependency on N. rileyi.

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