Factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows under selected smallholder production system

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Y. Nordin, N. Zaini and W.M. Wan Zahari

Abstract

The effect of factors related to the cow, farm, artificial insemination (AI) service and frozen semen on the conception rate of dairy cows under smallholder production system was studied. Information on the cow bred, farms, AI technicians, AI services and semen used were based on the survey forms from Animal Production and Health Section of International Atomic Energy Agency. The overall conception rate was 35.5% from 121 AI services involving 115 cows. The number of AI services per conception was 2.8. Mean interval from calving to first AI service and to conception was 90.7 days and 113.6 days, respectively. First service conception rate was 35.2%. The effect of milk production level, lactation state and site of semen deposition on conception rate was significant (p <0.05) in which conception rate was higher in cows with high milk yield, cows only on milking and cows where semen was deposited in the uterus. Other factors were not significant (p >0.05) but conception rate tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with fatty body condition. Conception rate also tended to be lower in farms that practised AI in the afternoon and in farms where farmers spent less time on dairy activities. Cows under feeding system with concentrate supplementation had lower conception rate than cows with supplementation of concentrate and roughage. Conception rate tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technician with longer formal training in AI.

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